Things are said to be named 'equivocally' when, though they have
a common name, the definition corresponding with the name differs
for each. Thus, a real man and a figure in a picture can both lay
claim to the name 'animal'; yet these are equivocally so named,
for, though they have a common name, the definition corresponding
with the name differs for each. For should any one define in what
sense each is an animal, his definition in the one case will be
appropriate to that case only.
On the other hand, things are said to be named 'univocally' which
have both the name and the definition answering to the name in
common. A man and an ox are both 'animal', and these are
univocally so named, inasmuch as not only the name, but also the
definition, is the same in both cases: for if a man should state
in what sense each is an animal, the statement in the one case
would be identical with that in the other.
Things are said to be named 'derivatively', which derive their
name from some other name, but differ from it in termination.
Thus the grammarian derives his name from the word 'grammar', and
the courageous man from the word 'courage'.